# Resampling¶

Time series data can occur in irregular time intervals. However, to be useful for analytics, the time intervals need to be equispaced.

## Resampling recipe¶

The resampling recipe transforms time series data occurring in irregular time intervals into equispaced data. The recipe is also useful for transforming equispaced data from one frequency level to another (for example, minutes to hours).

This recipe works on all numerical columns (type int or float) in your data.

### Input Data¶

Data that consists of n-dimensional time series in wide or long format.

### Parameters¶

#### Timestamp column¶

Name of the column that contains the timestamps. Note that the timestamp column must have the date type as its meaning, and duplicate timestamps cannot exist for a given time series.

#### Time step¶

Number of steps between timestamps of the resampled (output) data, specified as a numerical value.

#### Unit¶

Unit of the time step used for resampling, specified as one of these values:

• Years
• Months
• Weeks
• Days
• Hours
• Minutes
• Seconds
• Milliseconds
• Microseconds
• Nanoseconds

#### Interpolation method¶

Method used for inferring missing values for timestamps, where the missing values do not begin or end the time series. The available interpolation methods are:

• Nearest: nearest value
• Previous: previous value
• Next: next value
• Mean: average value
• Linear: linear interpolation
• Quadratic: spline interpolation of second order
• Cubic: spline interpolation of third order
• Don’t interpolate (no value)

Interpolation methods are based on the scipy implementation.

#### Extrapolation method¶

Method used for prolonging time series that stop earlier than others or start later than others. Extrapolation infers time series values that are located before the first available value or after the last available value. The available extrapolation methods are:

• Constant: set to previous available value or next available value (if previous values are missing)
• Same as interpolation
• Don’t extrapolate (no value)

#### Clip start¶

Number of time steps to remove from the beginning of the time series, specified as a numerical value of the unit parameter.

#### Clip end¶

Number of time steps to remove from the end of the time series, specified as a numerical value of the unit parameter.

#### Shift value¶

Amount by which to shift (or offset) all timestamps, specified as a positive or negative numerical value of the unit parameter.

#### Long format checkbox¶

Indicator that the input data is in the long format. See Long format.

#### Column with identifier¶

Name of column that contains identifiers for the time series when the input data is in the long format. This parameter is available when you enable the “Long format” checkbox.

### Output Data¶

Data consisting of equispaced time series, and having the same number of columns as the input data.

### Algorithms¶

The resampling recipe upsamples or downsamples time series in your data so that the length of all the time series are aligned. When you specify a given time step (for example, 30 seconds), the recipe will upsample or downsample the time series by an integer multiple of the time step.

The recipe also performs both interpolation (See Interpolation method) and extrapolation (See Extrapolation method) to infer missing values.

### Tip¶

• The resampling recipe works on all numerical columns in your input dataset. To apply the recipe on select columns, you must first prepare your data by removing the unwanted columns.